Friday, May 25, 2018

Probiotics - What You Need to Know

Should I take probiotics? Which one should I take? The higher the number, the more effective it is right? These are questions that community pharmacists are posed with daily.
Probiotics are defined as “live microorganisms, which when consumed in adequate amounts, confer a health effect on the host”.

Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are the most common bacteria found in the probiotics on your local pharmacy’s shelves. These two species differ in benefits, and even different strains within the same species can diverge


Lactobacillus Bifidobacterium
  • Inhibit growth of enteric pathogens
  • Produce antimicrobial compounds
  • Reduce inflammation
  • Inhibit growth of enteric pathogens 
  • Aid in lactose maldigestion 
  • Modulate the immune system 
  • Reduce allergy symptoms 
  • Hepatic encephalopathy

Probiotics are not equally created

There are many probiotic formulations on the market and they differ in several aspects including: composition, manufacturing, production, shelf life, strength of the formulation (measured in Colony Forming Units – CFUs), ability to deliver to the gut, clinical evidence and Health Canada approved indications.1

Strength2
  • CFU refers to the number of viable (able to multiply) bacteria cells in a sample 
  • A minimum number of microorganisms must be delivered to the gut in order to have the intended health benefits 
  • E.g. A minimum of 10 billion CFU is required to reduce the risk of CDAD
Ability to deliver to the gut3,4
  • To bestow its clinical effects, the probiotic must be able to deliver to the gastrointestinal system.
  • Enteric coated probiotic capsules have shown to be the most effective in reaching the gut. Encapsulated and probiotic powders have limited resistance to stomach acid
  • Evidence from one US review suggests that there is a 20-40% survival rate of bacteria through the GI tract.
  • However, this same review also stated that there is no evidence that orally administered probiotic organisms adhere to intestinal cells – they seem to pass into the feces without adhering or multiplying. This implies, to construe benefit, the probiotic must be administered continuously.
Stability
  • Temperature variations and other environmental conditions can compromise the stability and viability of the bacteria
  • Some products make no claim at all, while others claim the amount only at the time of manufacture. Some products, such as capsules, require the bacteria to be freeze-dried and such processes may also affect viability.
  • One US study conducted by ConsumerLab.com found that among 26 probiotic products, eight contained less than 1% of the claimed number of live bacteria or of the claimed minimum of 1 billion.5
  • Consumers may be misled, as the number of live bacteria in a probiotic at the time of purchase may be lower than the labelled amount

So what’s the evidence?
Working in a community pharmacy, I’ve heard indications ranging from allergic conditions to vaginal yeast infections, but most commonly, and where most of the evidence lies, is with antibiotic use and diarrhea. Some probiotics can prevent diarrhea associated with antibiotic use (AAD) and can reduce the risk of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD).

Health Canada lists over 1000 types of active probiotics on the market but only 15 are indicated for AAD management and/or prevention, and only one probiotic is approved for both AAD and CDAD. This just goes to show probiotics are not interchangeable and can have great disparity.

There are no probiotic containing foods (e.g. yogurt) that have approved health claims. The CFU count in these foods generally do not contain the minimum of 10 billion CFUs to confer health benefits. In addition, the ability of food to deliver bacteria to the gut has not been clinically studied.4

Five Key Criteria for Recommending an Effective Probiotic6
  1. Identifiable high-quality strains
  2. Synergy of strains
  3. Guaranteed bioactivity (live, health microorganisms)
  4. Gastrointestinal survival
  5. Clinical studies (on the finished product).
What do you tell your patient?6
  1. Not all probiotics are the same
  2. Select a specific and appropriate probiotic for intended effect. Refer to the Canadian guide to probiotic products if you are unsure what to recommend
  3. Always select a product with the highest level of evidence, especially look for those approved by Health Canada for specific indications
  4. Advise patients to take probiotics at least 2 hours apart from antibiotics (if AAD/CDAD is the indication)
All in all, probiotics can be used to support a healthy digestive tract and immune system but not all probiotics can be assumed to provide the same efficacy for other indications.


Final Thoughts: 
Only recommend products approved by Health Canada and do your research before prescribing. Health Canada approved labelling should be printed clearly on the packaging and should be searchable on Health Canada’s Licensed Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Database (LNHPD) using the product’s unique NPN number. For general information on the use of probiotics, Health Canada provides a useful guide that outlines acceptable claims and identifies the strains that have been most studied.7

If you’d like to learn more about Probiotics in AAD and CDAD – visit rxBriefCase for the program:

References
  1. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Evaluation of Health and Nutritional Properties of Probiotics in Food Including Powder Milk with Live Lactic Acid Bacteria, October 2001. 
  2. Goldenberg JZ, Ma SSY, Saxton JD, Martzen MR, Vandvik PO, Thorlund K, Guyatt GH, Johnston BC. 2013. Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults and children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.5:CD006095. 
  3. Grzeskowiak et al. 2011. Manufacturing process influences properties of probiotic bacteria. Br J Nutr. 105 (6): 887 -94
  4. Millette M et al. 2013. Gastrointestinal survival of bacteria in commercial probiotic products. International Journal of Probiotics & Prebiotics. 8 (4):149-56
  5. Mason, P. 2007.Probiotics: are they worth taking? The Pharmaceutical Journal (Vol 278)
  6. Probiotics: A Leading Role in Reducing the Risk of Antibiotic Associated Side Effects & C. difficile Associated Diarrhea; http://www.rxbriefcase.com
  7. Doran S, Snydman DR. Risk and safety of probiotics. CID 2015; 60 (Suppl 2): S129-S134. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25922398

Thursday, May 17, 2018

Getting Ready for the Long Weekend!

Who doesn’t love long weekends? Whether you’re going hiking, camping or simply getting out of the city, there’s always something to do.
Here are some tips for your weekend getaways that will take you right through the summer.

1. Lather on that sunscreen
As most of us know, the sun can damage our skin, while sunscreen can act as a form of protection. The sun has two types of radiation: UVA and UVB. UVB rays damage the surface of the skin by causing sunburns and tanning. On the other hand, UVA rays penetrate deeper into the skin to cause signs of skin aging, such as wrinkles, uneven colour, and leathery skin. Broad spectrum sunscreens can protect us from both types of radiation.
Where many people tend to get confused is the different SPF (Sun Protection Factor) options available. SPF tells us how much time the sunscreen will protect us from UVB rays. For example: If it takes 30 minutes for your skin to start turning red without sunscreen, using a sunscreen with SPF 30 should theoretically take 30 times longer to get a sunburn. However, this does not consider sweating, swimming and other ways the sunscreen can be removed.
Fun Fact: SPF 15 absorbs 93% of UVB radiation while SPF 30 absorbs 97%! It’s not twice the protection.
So how do you choose a sunscreen?



The Canadian Dermatology Association (CDA) recommends sunscreens with SPF30 for daily use. Look for the CDA logo, as it indicates the sunscreen is perfume free, hypoallergenic and has a minimum SPF of 30.

Fun Fact: Sunscreen should be applied every day, not just during the summer.

How much should I use?
The average adult needs 1 oz (i.e. a shot glass) of sunscreen for their body and 1 teaspoon for their face and neck. This should be applied 20-30 mins before entering the sun to give sufficient time for absorption and reapplied throughout the day, preferably every 2 hours.

Other tips:
  • Wear long sleeves, wide brimmed hats and sunglasses
  • Avoid the sun between 10 am – 4 pm when the sun’s rays are strongest
  • Stay in the shade

But what if you get burned?

DO
DON’T
  • Apply cold cloth to sunburned areas to relieve pain
  • Wear loose clothing to prevent more irritation

  • Break or pick at blisters
  • Peel skin
  • Spend excess time in sunlight


2. Get away bugs!
With the great outdoors, there also comes a plethora of insects that bite and sting. Here are my top tips for avoiding the annoying, inflamed bump to follow.

Stings
Bites
  • Avoid using scented cosmetics, perfumes, hairsprays that can attract insects
  • Avoid or caution eating outdoors and cover drinks to avoid swallowing wasps or bees
  • Limit the time outdoors at dawn and dusk
  • Wear clothing that covers as much skin as possible and tuck in pant legs when near nesting areas
  • Avoid infested areas (tall grasses, marshes, swamps)
  • Dispose of any sources of standing water (rain barrels, bird baths, clogged gutters)
  • Avoid being outdoors at dawn and dusk because this is their peak times

But if you get stung..
  • Remove the stinger or insect to decrease local reaction.
  • Remove it by gently scraping side to side with a fingernail, tweezers or even a credit card 
  • Clean the site with warm water and soap to prevent an infection
  • Apply a cool compress to the site to reduce swelling
  • For pain, try acetaminophen, ASA or ibuprofen
  • For pain, itching and inflammation, try an oral antihistamine over a topical one (diphenhydramine, loratadine, cetirizine)
  • If you really want a topical option, try an over the counter local anesthetic like benzocaine, lidocaine or pramoxine

3.  Stay hydrated
When you’re so busy having fun in the sun, your water intake may not be keeping up with all the loss from activity. Each person has varying water intake recommendations depending on age, weight, activity level – but a general rule of thumb is 8x8, or 8 glasses of 8 ounces of water each day.
Some tips to increase your water intake are:
  • Invest in a reusable water bottle
  • Drink a glass of water before you eat
  • Eat fruits and vegetables filled with water (cucumbers, celery, watermelon)
  • Infuse your water with fresh fruit (lemon, berries, oranges)
  • Make a water schedule and stick to it

Well that’s all I have for you this week. Happy Victoria Day!

Cheers,
Ingrid

Friday, May 11, 2018

World of Uncertainty

Hi rxBriefCase!

My name is Ingrid and I'm the new pharmacy student here. This is the first rotation of my fourth year before I become a full-fledged pharmacist. As I enter my final year of pharmacy school, I'm frequently bombarded with questions of my future career – Do I want to work in hospital or community? Do I want to stay in Canada or move to the US? Do I want to stay in Toronto or move to a smaller city?

The truth is, I have no idea!

Pharmacy is a career option that has many opportunities: community, hospital, industry, consulting, government - the opportunities are endless and I want to explore it all. The APPE rotation system is fantastic in that it allows students to get a feel of areas we would otherwise never be exposed to (like my time here at mdBriefCase!). Alas, to my dismay, there is limited time and positions making it impossible for me to dip my feet into it all but I shall revel in each rotation as they come.

While my future may be filled with uncertainty, there are a few fun facts I am certain about: 

1.      Travelling - The act of travelling is a pain but immersing in the food and culture of the destination is indescribable (most recently South Korea and the peanut butter grilled squid!)
2.      I'm a major foodie - I love both cooking and eating. I'm open to trying just about any food/cuisine at least once (Curry fish balls in Hong Kong is one of my favourite street foods!)
3.      I absolutely love aerial yoga – “What if I fall? Oh, but my darling, what if you fly?”
4.      I'm starting to get into hiking - Don't let me fool you, I'm not as active as I may sound, I need to balance my eating habits somehow
5.      I enjoy knitting while watching Netflix – This is my true form, wrapped up in a warm blanket with my needles and my latest binge 

I'm looking forward to exploring the realm of continuing education here at mdBriefCase and I'll check in with you next week.

Cheers,
Ingrid

Friday, April 20, 2018

Top 3 Doubts Preventing You From Becoming a Hospital Pharmacist

Change is hard.

Contemplation is the first step towards making any change in your career path, but it can be easy to talk yourself out of it.

Venturing into the unknown world of hospital pharmacy can seem daunting, so why make the transition? Maybe it’s because you feel like you’re not being challenged enough in your current role or maybe you feel like you’re not making enough of an impact on your patients. Maybe you just feel that it’s time for a change.


Whatever your reasons, you’ve probably at one point or another, doubted your ability to succeed in an institutional environment. 

In this blog, we’ll explore the 3 top reasons that you may have convinced yourself a hospital isn’t for you and why you shouldn’t allow them to stand in your way.

1) I need a residency to work in a hospital

A hospital pharmacy residency is a 12-month, rotation-based learning experience intended to prepare pharmacists for institutional practice. Many pharmacists are under the impression that they can’t get a position in a hospital without a hospital residency.

This is not true.

A hospital residency can be a valuable way to gain specialized knowledge and clinical experience, while building confidence, and it can definitely give your resume an edge. Teaching hospitals in particular, often put weight on whether a candidate possesses this qualification.

But it is not a requirement to be a hospital pharmacist. Not yet.

The 2013/2014 Hospital Pharmacy in Canada Report showed that only 20% of pharmacists working in hospitals across Canada have completed a hospital pharmacy residency. Although the Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacy’s (CSHP) goal is to ultimately make that 100%, at this time, the fact remains: there are not enough residency positions to meet the needs of hospitals in Canada. Consequently, making residency a requirement for hospital positions is not a reality of the immediate future. Currently, about 80% of pharmacists hired in hospitals within Canada do not have a hospital residency.

More importantly, a good employer will not only value your credentials but also your experience, your ability to adapt to a new and challenging environment, your desire to advance the practice and your fit within the team.

2) I don’t have enough clinical background to work in a hospital

Remember, you are a pharmacist. You already have the foundational knowledge and skill set required to make a sound clinical judgment and provide optimal patient care. The basics are the same in any pharmacy practice setting.

Regardless of where you practice, whether community or hospital, pharmacy is an ever-evolving area of health care and staying abreast on new and upcoming treatments or guidelines is always best practice. Unless you are transitioning into a highly specialized field, you likely already have most of the knowledge you need for an institutional position. Think about your current role - much of what you need to know, you probably learned first-hand on the job.


"You already have the foundational knowledge and skill set required to make a sound clinical judgment and provide optimal patient care."


That’s not to say that there won’t be a learning curve. Depending on the site and the unit, training can often range from several weeks to several months. This will not only serve as an orientation to the operational and clinical services of your site, but it also begins the process of integrating your prior knowledge into the provision of pharmaceutical care for a new patient population.

If you still feel unprepared, keep in mind that most hospitals, and especially teaching hospitals, foster an environment where learning is encouraged. Members of your healthcare team are accustomed to the myriad of students, residents and fellows of different disciplines on your unit, at any given time, and will keep education a priority. In addition to peer support, most hospitals have a multitude of educational opportunities and online resources at your disposal to support personal development and enhance your knowledge.

3) I will be undervalued by other healthcare professionals on the team

This thought has probably crossed the mind of every pharmacist at one point or another.

Historically, pharmacists have been dubbed as the “unseen” members of healthcare teams. Working behind the scenes, the impact of the pharmacists’ role is not always clearly visible to patients or even other healthcare professionals. Studies have shown that pharmacists’ perception of their value among other health care professionals is often negative.

"Pharmacists are an integral part of interdisciplinary teams."


But pharmacists are an integral part of interdisciplinary teams. Numerous studies have shown the impact pharmacists can have on patient outcomes in a variety of settings. And despite the belief of how they are perceived by their colleagues, pharmacists in the hospital setting are recognized by other health care professionals as a valued member of the team.
The traditional hierarchy of hospital teams and the notion that “physician knows best” have long been replaced with patient-centered models that focus on collaboration between all equal members of the healthcare team to achieve patient-specific goals.

As with any new position, there will always be a certain amount of “proving yourself” involved. But this is an opportunity to show your team what you’re really capable of and ensure they utilize the full scope of their pharmacist in a collaborative environment. 

It may seem like an impossible task to start a new path in hospital pharmacy, but don’t allow your doubts to dissuade you. With persistence and dedication, you can make the shift.



Reference:
Hospital Pharmacy in Canada 2013/2014 Report. Hospital Pharmacy in Canada Editorial Board. 2015 http://www.lillyhospitalsurvey.ca/hpc2/content/2015_report/FULL-2015.pdf

Friday, April 6, 2018

The Beginning and the End

“Keep calm and welcome to the team” - the sign pinned to the bulletin board across from my desk, my new home for the next 5 weeks. This was only a small part of the warm welcome I’ve received since starting my rotation here at mdBriefCase Group!

My name is Sarah, and I am an APPE (Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience) student at the Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy at UofT.

I am also a pharmacist. 

So why is a fully-licensed pharmacist doing a pharmacy student rotation? Recall that years ago, Pharmacy Schools in Canada started the transition from the standard Bachelors of Pharmacy program to an entry-level PharmD program? This is one of the reasons why I'm here today. 

My stream however, is called the PharmD for Pharmacists. A program for individuals, such as myself, who graduated with a Bachelors in Pharmacy and want to step it up a notch. 

Related imageMany people ask me why I decided to take the plunge and return to school for my PharmD, having graduated 10 years ago. Although those 6 letters after their name are the driving force for many, the answer for me was quite simple; I wanted to broaden my knowledge base.  

For the majority of my career, I have been working in the oncology setting –  a very niche area. The PharmD for Pharmacists has allowed me to explore and experience areas of Pharmacy I had never considered before. From uncovering the inner workings of the Faculty and what’s involved in curriculum design & development to learning, first-hand, about health care and pharmacy practice in the Cayman Islands. Being able to practice what I love, with one of the most beautiful beaches in the world in my own backyard, has definitely been a highlight of my PharmD experience!

mdBriefCase Group will be my last rotation before I complete my PharmD (yay!) and I am so excited to dive into the world of Continuing Education!

Have you always wondered about going back to school or what it would be like to practice abroad? Share your dreams or success stories with us!


- Sarah

Wednesday, March 7, 2018

What Can the Certified Bariatric Educator (CBE) Designation Do for You?

Reflecting back on my past 5 weeks at mdBriefCase, it has truly been a great learning experience for me as I was able to learn so much about obesity as a disease. For my last post I was able to explore the future of obesity management by highlighting the Certified Bariatric Educator (CBE) designation.     

The designation was developed by the Canadian Obesity Network (CON) for healthcare professionals who want to advance their practice in obesity management. It serves to maintain the standards for credentialing and distinguishing healthcare professionals in Canada who have achieved a competency in obesity management and bariatric care.

To understand the CBE designation in its entirety, I had the pleasure of interviewing 2 healthcare professionals on their CBE experience. Daniel Burton is a registered pharmacist practicing in a primary care network (PCN) centre in Calgary who has just obtained his CBE designation. Jennifer Brown is a registered dietitian practicing in the Weight Management Clinic and Bariatric Centre of Excellence at the Ottawa Hospital, who is in the process of completing her CBE exam but turns out to have almost 10 years of experience practicing in the field of obesity.
Why Obesity?
When I spoke to Daniel and Jennifer individually, both of them had slightly different reasons for pursuing a career in obesity and their CBE designation. For Daniel it was to fill a gap in knowledge he identified while working with various types of patients including those living with diabetes, mental health issues and particularly obesity. Daniel felt the gap in knowledge had to be addressed to be able to fulfill the needs and demands of his practice.  As for Jennifer, she too noticed the lack of knowledge around obesity management and the lack of proper treatment patients were receiving. Jennifer says she was “tired of giving the same old prescription of just eat less, move more” and decided to invest her whole career into obesity management and has not turned back since.

The CBE Process
Overall both Daniel and Jennifer found the process of obtaining their CBE to be not too difficult. Daniel completed the Advanced Obesity Management Program on Advancing Practice, whereas Jennifer participated in the Learning Retreat on the Principles and Practice of Interdisciplinary Obesity Management for Dietitians hosted by CON and Dietitians of Canada. Furthermore both of them found the material not too challenging as long as you were willing to read the resources and do some additional research alongside studying for the exam. Jennifer mentioned for someone like her with 10 years of experience practicing in obesity, having the motivation to pursue a CBE might be a challenge for some healthcare professionals. Despite this, she still stresses the importance for everyone to obtain their CBE, from those just entering practice to those with years of experience in the field of obesity. “It validates your education, your understanding and your confidence to be able to perform in this area” she mentions passionately.  

The Biggest Impact of the CBE
Enthusiastically, Daniel mentions that obtaining his CBE has “shaped and reformed” his practice with all his patients. He now has a different thought process in approaching each patient and some portion of the skills he has developed is applied daily to patient care regardless of the condition. “It has made me a much better clinician” Daniel says proudly as he provides an example of a complex patient who had difficulty maintaining his progress in weight management. With the new skills he learned from becoming a CBE, Daniel was able to tailor the management plan for his patient to something more achievable.

When faced with the same question, Jennifer had to think long and hard because to her, the designation would minimally change her practice directly as she has been working in a Bariatric Centre of Excellence for so long. However, she mentioned the CBE designation would set those with the credential above other providers without. Interestingly, Jennifer often reflected back during the interview to the earlier days of her career and wished she had the opportunity to pursue a designation like the CBE.

When I asked Jennifer if she thought the CBE would strengthen the relationship between patients and healthcare providers, she agreed almost immediately. With obesity management still being under serviced, the credential would make “a world of a difference” for patients as it would instill more trust in their providers. This is because the healthcare professionals have taken the necessary steps to learn about their patient’s condition and are now more capable in managing the condition appropriately.

Patient Recognition & Response
To understand how the CBE designation was being integrated into patient care, I asked both Daniel and Jennifer about the recognition of the designation from patients, employers and colleagues. According to Daniel, the patients that were referred to him already had questions regarding weight management before he had become a CBE and once he obtained this credential, the demand for his services has increased. However the most important reason for him though is that he can now provide these services more effectively.

However, Jennifer highlighted that many patients are still not aware that these credentials exist or the resources available to them. That is why she includes information and resources throughout her counselling and group education to equip patients and their family members with the tools to advocate for their own health to their primary care providers. Patients can go into their physicians’ office and ask questions like “Did you know about the Canadian Obesity Network?” or “Do you know that there is a CBE designation that certifies you as a specialist in this area?” and most healthcare providers are very eager to learn to be able to provide the best care to their patients. To Jennifer the CBE is a tool for patient advocacy, because “it’s the support from their primary care providers that are going to really make the biggest impact”.

Recognition from employers and colleagues
Many of Daniel’s physician colleagues are noticing the potential benefits of the CBE and trust him to manage all aspects of patients’ obesity care; from counseling to monitoring and follow-up because of the expertise associated with the designation. Despite being recognized by his colleagues, Daniel comments that employers are still figuring out how to integrate the CBE services into their healthcare practice, as the PCN he works in is currently in the same situation. He explains that the CBE services are not any different than providing care to a patient with diabetes or hypertension since the approach to patient care is similar regardless of the condition.

Being hopeful, Jennifer thinks the new Canadian Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Treatment of Obesity in Adults that are due to be published in 2018-2019 will highlight the importance of the CBE designation. Additionally, the potential shift in obesity management as a chronic disease in healthcare and policy making in the next 5 to 10 years could have a trickledown effect for employers to ensure their employees have this credential when providing obesity care.

Overall, both Daniel and Jennifer are great examples and motivators for any healthcare professional to pursue their CBE, regardless of where they are in their career. Despite being in its infancy, the CBE designation has a lot to offer healthcare professionals and as obesity management progresses in the next few years, the designation will become an important one to have for any practice.

If this post has sparked your interest in obtaining your CBE designation, refer to the Canadian Obesity Network website for more information on how to kick-start your application process. 


Cheers,
Aveline 

Tuesday, February 27, 2018

Q&A with Dr. Sean Wharton: Obesity through the Eyes of an Expert

As a leading expert in the field of obesity and a Canadian Obesity Network (CON) member, Dr. Sean Wharton MD, FRCPC, PharmD has significantly contributed to the field of obesity in terms of research, treatment, education and patient advocacy over the course of his amazing career.

I had the pleasure of interviewing Dr. Wharton to learn about his career focusing on obesity and his thoughts on the various aspects surrounding this chronic disease. He also discusses what we can do as healthcare professionals to better help our patients living with obesity.

The excerpts below are a summary of my interview with him. I hope this interview provides some food for thought on how we currently manage obesity and what changes can be done to improve management for our patients.

Why did you choose to focus on obesity when there are so many other conditions to manage?
As a general internist, I chose to practice obesity medicine as it had a niche for internists that was unfilled by other subspecialties and there was very little focus on it. I felt that a lot of different chronic diseases being managed including diabetes and hypertension were frequently a result of a person's weight, so if you can manage obesity you can manage a lot of the other health conditions that are associated with it. It’s [obesity] a very interesting, new and exciting field to actually tackle.

What is the most frustrating aspect when dealing with patients or other healthcare professionals?
The most frustrating [aspect] in both patients and healthcare providers is a lack of understanding of the biology of weight change as well as the belief that it is [obesity] primarily a lifestyle issue and not a biological medical condition. I encounter this misunderstanding often and I think clinicians and patients want to believe that obesity is a lifestyle issue and they dismiss the fact that it’s a medical condition despite presented with evidence because it doesn't fit with their thought process.

Most of my patients have little understanding of the biological processes and feel that willpower and/or lifestyle changes are all that is needed to be able to keep weight off over the long term.

Are these biases that you mentioned affecting healthcare professionals’ ability to help patients?
Absolutely, these biases affect the clinicians ability to help patients to lose weight because they lack the true understanding of the biology of obesity. It [these biases] ends up impacting their relationship with patients, their ability to be sensitive to a patient's challenges and ability to offer other aspects of healthcare to their patients in a timely fashion.

Comments like “If you just lose some weight then we can do your pap-smear better because how can I do it if you don't lose weight” results in patients feeling embarrassed and unwilling to return. People who struggle with obesity do not visit their doctor as often [as those without] because of the embarrassment and stigma leading to significant decrease level of care which increases their risk of developing further problems. When they [healthcare professionals] tell patients “You can lose weight with just diet and exercise”, the patient becomes discouraged because they know that they can't and they feel that they’re disappointing their physicians, so they don't come back and see them.

How does commercial diets that guarantee weight loss impact practicing evidence based obesity management?
The short term willpower capacity [that these diets promote] is what ends up confusing people because they really believe that short term weight loss equals the ability to continue [losing weight] in the long term if they just keep on fighting. The analogy I like to paint is playing the slot machines in Vegas; you play it over and over again – winning once in a while, which tends to keep you going and thinking that maybe you’ll win big but in the end everybody loses money at the slot machine eventually. Of course there’s a small percentage of people that have won big and they’re held up as examples of what everyone else can achieve. It’s unfortunate because people want to believe in success and they want to believe in the dream but it’s misleading.    

What is the biggest achievement and setback that has occurred in obesity management?
I think the biggest achievement is the introduction of GLP-1 analogues [for obesity treatment] because for the first time the neurological and biological aspects [of obesity] were highlighted by a medication backed by a big pharmaceutical company. This facilitated the education of obesity to a large number of people whereas prior to that, the medications on the market didn't really highlight how much obesity is a biological and neurological process.

The biggest setback I think has been the commercialization of weight loss shows which continue to perpetuate that this [obesity] can be managed through lifestyle modification alone. People only see the initial weight loss success but not the regaining of weight after due to the biology [of obesity].

In your opinion, what are some of the most useful resources for obesity management for both healthcare professionals and patients?
In terms of physician and researcher resources, I found that the Canadian Obesity Network (CON) has been very good. For patient resources I have not found very many that are actually helpful but there are multiple websites that do not provide useful information about the biological aspect of obesity and do nothing to help a patient.

The few [patient resources] that are helpful include Dr. Yoni Freedhoff’s blog and Dr. Sue Pederson’s blog as well as Dr. Freedhoff’s book “The Diet Fix” which is pretty good but it’s a little wordy and not as patient friendly.

When should a general practitioner refer their patients to an obesity specialist?
I think any time a patient expresses that they are feeling lost, having difficulty managing weight and expressing the need to see somebody with greater knowledge. It shouldn’t be based on the patient’s health or weight. Although a patient might not fit the BMI criteria for referral to a weight management clinic, the degree of stress that is associated with weight gain and the need for greater understanding of their bodies is an important consideration. Of course if they have other health conditions associated with elevated weight (e.g. fatty liver, osteoarthritis, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia) they should definitely find their way to an obesity specialist.

What is it the single best thing, as healthcare professionals we can do to reduce the stigma patients experience?
I think the best thing we can do is explain the biology [of obesity] to patients. I believe that not only the physician community but the patient community needs to be aware of it too. This goes a long way in accepting obesity as a medical condition and therefore provides the ability to actually treat it. By explaining to patients the biological process that dictates the weight gained once weight has been lost, it helps them understand their struggle and reduce the self-blame which can significantly affect their goals. With the appropriate goals, patients have a greater ability to be happy and self-efficacious.

Post Reflection
After speaking with Dr. Wharton, I could feel the immense passion he has for the field of obesity and it is exciting to see how the future of obesity management and treatment will change as more research is being conducted in different areas from pharmacotherapy, surgery to psychology.

For more information on topics discussed in the interview, here are some links:

Cheers, 
Aveline